In this clip from – Until 1948, ASCAP had an exclusive contract with their writers. Thus, ASCAP had to be the negotiating party for the writers in all circumstances. In 1948 a court decision ruled that was an antitrust violation. Brabec explains that, consequently, current contracts allow writers and publishers to bypass ASCAP or BMI and directly license to users. Also in this segment, Brabec covers the decision’s effect on motion picture monies in the United States. Since the provision established in the decision, motion pictures do not pay money in the United States. He emphasizes that performance royalties for films are a major source of income in foreign territories.